HASTELLOY® alloy C-22

HASTELLOY-Alloy-C-22

Overview

HASTELLOY Alloy C-22 is a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with enhanced resistance to pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. It resists the formation of grain boundary precipitates in the weld-heat affected zone making it suitable for use in the as-welded condition. C-22 has outstanding resistance to both reducing and oxidizing media and because of its resistibility can be used where “upset” conditions are likely to occur. It is proven to possess excellent weldability and high corrosion resistance as consumable filler wires and electrodes. The alloy has proven results as a filler wire in many applications. As filler wire use when other corrosion resistant wires have failed.

C-22 can easily be cold-worked because of its ductility and cold-forming is the preferred method of forming. More energy is required because the alloy is generally stiffer than austenitic stainless steels. 0.28″ thick sheet in the heat-treated at 2050°F, rapid quenched condition, has an average olsen cup depth of 0.49″.

Chemistry

Chemical Requirements
NiCrMnCMoSiFe
MaxBal.22.50.500.01514.50.086.0
Min20.012.52.0

Tensile Data

Mechanical Property Requirements
Ultimate TensileYield Strength (0.2% OS)Elong. in 2 in. (50.8mm) or 4D min., %R/AHardness
Min100 KSi45 KSi45
Max
Min690 MPa310 MPa
Max

Specifications

UNS
BarASTM B574
Wire
SheetASTM B575
PlateASTM B575
FittingASME SB-366
ForgingASME SB-564
Weld Wire 
Weld Electrode 

Machining

Nickel & cobalt base corrosion, temperature and wear-resistant alloys are classified as moderate to difficult when machining, however, it should be emphasized that these alloys can be machined using conventional production methods at satisfactory rates. During machining these alloys work harden rapidly, generate high heat during cutting, weld to the cutting tool surface and offer high resistance to metal removal because of their high shear strengths. The following are key points which should be considered during machining operations:

CAPACITY – Machine should be rigid and overpowered as much as possible.
RIGIDITY – Work piece and tool should be held rigid. Minimize tool overhang.
TOOL SHARPNESS – Make sure tools are sharp at all times. Change to sharpened tools at regular intervals rather than out of necessity. A 0.015 inch wear land is considered a dull tool.
TOOLS – Use positive rake angle tools for most machining operations. Negative rake angle tools can be considered for intermittent cuts and heavy stock removal. Carbide-tipped tools are suggested for most applications. High speed tools can be used, with lower production rates, and are often recommended for intermittent cuts.
POSITIVE CUTS – Use heavy, constant, feeds to maintain positive cutting action. If feed slows and the tool dwells in the cut, work hardening occurs, tool life deteriorates and close tolerances are impossible.
LUBRICATION – lubricants are desirable, soluble oils are recommended especially when using carbide tooling. Detailed machining parameters are presented Tables 16 and17. General plasma cutting recommendations are presented in Table 18.

Table 16
RECOMMENDED TOOL TYPES AND MACHINING CONDITIONS
OperationsCarbide Tools
Roughing, with severe interruptionTurning or Facing C-2 and C-3 grade: Negative rake square insert, 45 degree SCEA1, 1/32 in. nose radius. Tool holder: 5 degree neg. back rake, 5 degree neg. side rake. Speed: 30-50 sfm, 0.004-0.008 in. feed, 0.150 in depth of cut. Dry2, oil3, or water-base coolant4.
Normal roughingTurning or Facing C-2 or C-3 grade: Negative rate square insert, 45 degree SCEA, 1/32 in nose radius. Tool holder: 5 degree neg. back rake, 5 degree neg. side rake. Speed: 90 sfm depending on rigidity of set up, 0.010 in. feed, 0.150 in. depth of cut. Dry, oil, or water-base coolant.
FinishingTurning or Facing C-2 or C-3 grade: Positive rake square insert, if possible, 45 degree SCEA, 1/32 in. nose radius. Tool holder: 5 degree pos. back rake, 5 degree pos. side rake. Speed: 95-110 sfm, 0.005-0.007 in. feed, 0.040 in. depth of cut. Dry or water-base coolant.
Rough BoringC-2 or C-3 grade: If insert type boring bar, use standard positive rake tools with largest possible SCEA and 1/16 in. nose radius. If brazed tool bar, grind 0 degree back rake, 10 degree pos. side rake, 1/32 in. nose radius and largest possible SCEA. Speed: 70 sfm depending on the rigidity of setup, 0.005-0.008 in. feed, 1/8 in. depth of cut. Dry, oil or water-base coolant.
Finish BoringC-2 or C-3 grade: Use standard positive rake tools on insert type bars. Grind brazed tools as for finish turning and facing except back rake may be best at 0 degrees. Speed: 95-110 sfm, 0.002-0.004 in feed. Water-base coolant.
Notes:
1 SCEA – Side cutting edge angle or lead angle of the tool.2 At any point where dry cutting is recommended, an air jet directed on the tool may provide substantial tool life increases. A water-base coolant mist may also be effective.3 Oil coolant should be premium quality, sulfochlorinated oil with extreme pressure additives. A viscosity at 100 degrees F from 50 to 125 SSU.4 Water-base coolant should be premium quality, sulfochlorinated water soluble oil or chemical emulsion with extreme pressure additives. Dilute with water to make 15:1 mix. Water-base coolant may cause chipping and rapid failure of carbide tools in interrupted cuts.
Table 17
RECOMMENDED TOOL TYPES AND MACHINING CONDITIONS
OperationsCarbide Tools
Facing MillingCarbide not generally successful, C- grade may work. Use positive axial and radial rake, 45 degree corner angle, 10 degree relief angle. Speed: 50-60 sfm. Feed: 0.005-0.008 in. Oil or waterbase coolants will reduce thermal shock damage of carbide cutter teeth.
End MillingNot recommended , but C-2 grades may be successful on good setups. Use positive rake. Speed: 50-60 sfm. Feed: Same as high speed steel. Oil or water-base coolants will reduce thermal shock damage.
DrillingC-2 grade not recommended, but tipped drills may be successful on rigid setup if no great depth. The web must thinned to reduce thrust. Use 135 degree included angle on point. Gun drill can be used. Speed: 50 sfm. Oil or water-base coolant. Coolant-feed carbide tipped drills may be economical in some setups.
ReamingC-2 or C-3 grade: Tipped reamers recommended, solid carbide reamers require vary good setup. Tool geometry same as high speed steel. Speed: 50 sfm. Feed: Same as high speed steel.
TappingNot recommended, machine threads, or roll-form them.
Electrical Discharge MachiningThe alloys can be easily cut using any conventional electrical discharge machining system (EDM) or wire (EDM).
Notes:
5 M-40 series High Speed Steels include M-41 , M-42, M-43, M-44, M-45 and M-46 at the time of writing. Others may be added and should be equally suitable.6 Oil coolant should be a premium quality, sulfochlorinated oil with extreme pressure additives. A viscosity at 100 degree F from 50 to 125 SSU.7 Water-base coolant should be premium quality, sulfochlorinated water soluble oil or chemical emulsion with extreme pressure additives. Dilute with water to make 15:1 mix.
Table 18
Plasma Arc Cutting
Our alloys can be cut using any conventional plasma arc cutting system. The best arc quality is achieved using a mixture of argon and hydrogen gases. Nitrogen gas can be substituted for hydrogen gases, but the cut quality will deteriorate slightly. Shop air or any oxygen bearing gases should be avoided when plasma cutting these alloys.

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